The impact of Next Generation Sequencing on human health and agriculture

Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) denotes high-throughput sequencing in a massively parallel fashion that brought a huge impact at far lower cost using a variety of novel platform technologies. With its ultra-high throughput, scalability, and speed, NGS enables many applications that require sequences of DNA and/or RNA. The applications include whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of organisms that have multiple, large chromosomes requiring sophisticated algorithms for sequence assembly, analysis of temporal and spatial patterns of RNA expression, annotation of novel genomes and their encoded genes using bioinformatic tools, studies on the epigenetic changes in genomes, and analyses of single nucleotide polymorphisms and genetic signatures that either predict genetic disease susceptibility or the presence of desirable genetic traits. NGS also provides deep insights into the biological diversity and evolutionary history of populations, whether they are of viral, microbial, plant, or human origin.